Practice Test: Middle School Humanities (76)

Suggested Testing Time: 4 hours

To Take This Practice Test


Read the poem below, "America" (1922) by Claude McKay; then answer the two questions that follow.

Although she feeds me bread of bitterness,
And sinks into my throat her tiger's tooth,
Stealing my breath of life, I will confess
I love this cultured hell that tests my youth.
Her vigor flows like tides into my blood,
Giving me strength erect against her hate.
Her bigness sweeps my being like a flood.
Yet, as a rebel fronts a king in state,
I stand within her walls with not a shred
Of terror, malice, not a word of jeer.
Darkly I gaze into the days ahead,
And see her might and granite wonders there,
Beneath the touch of Time's unerring hand,
Like priceless treasures sinking in the sand.

Question 1.

The poem is an example of which of the following poetic forms?

  1. ode
  2. sonnet
  3. ballad
  4. free verse

Question 2.

In the poem, McKay uses the phrase "cultured hell" primarily to:

  1. convey feelings of personified guilt.
  2. portray America as decadent and wasteful.
  3. establish an ironic tone.
  4. express the paradoxical nature of America.

Question 3.

Read the poem below, "The Wild Iris" (1992) by Louise Glück1; then answer the question that follows.

At the end of my suffering
there was a door.

Hear me out: that which you call death
I remember.

Overhead, noises, branches of the pine shifting.
Then nothing. The weak sun
flickered over the dry surface.

It is terrible to survive
as consciousness
buried in the dark earth.

Then it was over: that which you fear, being
a soul and unable
to speak, ending abruptly, the stiff earth
bending a little. And what I took to be
birds darting in low shrubs.

You who do not remember
passage from the other world
I tell you I could speak again: whatever
returns from oblivion returns
to find a voice:

from the center of my life came
a great fountain, deep blue
shadows on azure seawater.

In the poem, Glück uses personification primarily to:

  1. illustrate the connection between humanity and nature.
  2. describe the yearly cycle of perennial flowers.
  3. develop the thematic ideas of hope and rebirth.
  4. convey the speaker's feelings at seeing a new flower.

Question 4.

Read the excerpt below from "The Most Dangerous Game" (1924), a short story by Richard Connell; then answer the question that follows.

He had to stop to get his breath. The baying of the hounds stopped abruptly, and Rainsford's heart stopped too. They must have reached the knife.

He shinned excitedly up a tree and looked back. His pursuers had stopped. But the hope that was in Rainsford's brain when he climbed died, for he saw in the shallow valley that General Zaroff was still on his feet. But Ivan was not. The knife, driven by the recoil of the springing tree, had not wholly failed.

Rainsford had hardly tumbled to the ground when the pack took up the cry again.

"Nerve, nerve, nerve!" he panted, as he dashed along. A blue gap showed between the trees dead ahead. Ever nearer drew the hounds. Rainsford forced himself on toward that gap. He reached it. It was the shore of the sea. Across a cove he could see the gloomy gray stone of the chateau. Twenty feet below him the sea rumbled and hissed. Rainsford hesitated. He heard the hounds. Then he leaped far out into the sea.

The excerpt is most characteristic of which of the following elements of plot?

  1. denouement
  2. exposition
  3. climax
  4. resolution

Question 5.

Read the excerpt below from The Crossover (2014), a novel in verse by Kwame Alexander2; then answer the question that follows.

[ K R A W S–O H–V E R ] noun

A simple basketball move
in which a player dribbles
the ball quickly
from one hand
to the other.

As in: When done right,
a crossover can break
an opponent's ankles.

As in: Deron Williams's crossover
is nice, but Allen Iverson's crossover
was so deadly, he could've set up
his own podiatry practice.

As in: Dad taught me
how to give a soft cross first
to see if your opponent falls
for it,
then hit 'em
with the hard crossover.

In the excerpt, Alexander provides various examples of crossover primarily to:

  1. establish an objective tone.
  2. demonstrate the importance of exercise.
  3. reveal its significance to the speaker.
  4. develop an extended metaphor.

Question 6.

Read the excerpt from "Sympathy" (1899), a poem by Paul Laurence Dunbar; then answer the question that follows.

I know what the caged bird feels, alas!
When the sun is bright on the upland slopes;
When the wind stirs soft through the springing grass,
And the river flows like a stream of glass;
When the first bird sings and the first bud opes,
And the faint perfume from its chalice steals—
I know what the caged bird feels!

I know why the caged bird beats his wing
Till its blood is red on the cruel bars;
For he must fly back to his perch and cling
When he fain would be on the bough a-swing;
And a pain still throbs in the old, old scars
And they pulse again with a keener sting—
I know why he beats his wing!

Which of the following thematic ideas is most clearly developed in the excerpt?

  1. the relationship between humans and animals
  2. the desire for freedom and equity
  3. the power of music to express emotion
  4. the beauty of the natural world

Question 7.

Read the excerpt below from Middlemarch (1871), a novel by George Eliot; then answer the question that follows.

An eminent philosopher among my friends, who can dignify even your ugly furniture by lifting it into the serene light of science, has shown me this pregnant little fact. Your pier-glass or extensive surface of polished steel, made to be rubbed by a housemaid, will be minutely and multitudinously scratched in all directions; but place now against it a lighted candle as a centre of illumination, and lo! the scratches will seem to arrange themselves in a fine series of concentric circles round that little sun. It is demonstrable that the scratches are going everywhere impartially, and it is only your candle which produces the flattering illusion of a concentric arrangement, its light falling with an exclusive optical selection. These things are a parable. The scratches are events, and the candle is the egoism of any person now absent—of Miss Vincy, for example. Rosamond had a Providence of her own who had kindly made her more charming than other girls, and who seemed to have arranged Fred's illness and Mr. Wrench's mistake in order to bring her and Lydgate within effective proximity. It would have been to contravene these arrangements if Rosamond had consented to go away to Stone Court or elsewhere, as her parents wished her to do, especially since Mr. Lydgate thought the precaution needless.

In the excerpt, Eliot uses the parable of the scratches and the candle to develop which of the following thematic ideas?

  1. Everyone will have a unique viewpoint on events.
  2. People often misinterpret events due to their own perspectives.
  3. Even seemingly random events follow specific patterns.
  4. Trivial events can often have important consequences.

Question 8.

Read the excerpt below from "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (1971), a poem by Anne Sexton3; then answer the question that follows.

Snow White walked in the wildwood
for weeks and weeks.
At each turn there were twenty doorways
and at each stood a hungry wolf,
his tongue lolling out like a worm.
The birds called out lewdly,
talking like pink parrots,
and the snakes hung down in loops,
each a noose for her sweet white neck.
On the seventh week
she came to the seventh mountain
and there she found the dwarf house.
It was as droll as a honeymoon cottage
and completely equipped with
seven beds, seven chairs, seven forks
and seven chamber pots.
Snow White ate seven chicken livers
and lay down, at last, to sleep.

In the excerpt, the author is commenting on which of the following tropes of fairy tales?

  1. the significance of numbers
  2. the presence of vivid scenery
  3. the role of the journey
  4. the function of wicked stepparents

Question 9.

Which of the following excerpts from a work of fiction best illustrates the use of stream of consciousness?

  1. It was Sunday. Our congregation had been visiting at Pulverton, and were coming home. There was no wind. The autumn sun, the bell from Ebenezer Church, listless and heavy. Even the pines were stale, sticky, like the smell of food that makes you sick. Before we turned the bend of the road that would show us the Becky cabin, the horses stopped stock-still, pushed back their ears, and nervously whinnied. We urged, then whipped them on. Quarter of a mile away thin smoke curled up from the leaning chimney.
  2. You paid some way for everything that was any good. I paid my way into enough things that I liked, so that I had a good time. Either you paid by learning about them, or by experience, or by taking chances, or by money. Enjoying living was learning to get your money's worth and knowing when you had it. You could get your money's worth. The world was a good place to buy in. It seemed like a fine philosophy. In five years, I thought, it will seem just as silly as all the other fine philosophies I've had.
  3. Do you believe that every place has its hour of the day when it really does come alive? That's not exactly what I mean. It's more like this. There does seem to be a moment when you realize that, quite by accident, you happen to have come on to the stage at exactly the moment you were expected. Everything is arranged for you—waiting for you. Ah, master of the situation! You fill with important breath.
  4. The cold domed room of the tower waits. Through the barbacans the shafts of light are moving ever, slowly ever as my feet are sinking, creeping duskward over the dial floor. Blue dusk, nightfall, deep blue night. In the darkness of the dome they wait, their pushedback chairs, my obelisk valise, around a board of abandoned platters. Who to clear it? He has the key. I will not sleep there when this night comes. A shut door of a silent tower entombing their blind bodies, the panthersahib and his pointer. Call: no answer.

Question 10.

Read the excerpt below from The Bingo Palace (1994), novel by Louise Erdrich4; then answer the question that follows.

I often brag on Lyman, for even though I think of him as a big, bland Velveeta, I am proud I am related to this reservation's biggest cheese. The fact is, a tribal go-getter has to pasteurize himself. He has to please every tribal faction. He has to be slick, offend nobody, keep his opinions hid. By way of doing this, Lyman has run so many businesses that nobody can keep track—cafés, gas pumps, a factory that made tomahawks, a flower shop, an Indian Taco concession, a bar which he has added to and parlayed from a penny-card bingo hall and kitchen-table blackjack parlor into something bigger, something we don't know the name of yet, something with dollar signs that crowd the meaning from our brain.

In the passage, the author uses the metaphor "pasteurize himself" to:

  1. emphasize Lyman's ability to interact with everyone.
  2. suggest that Lyman has an inauthentic personality.
  3. establish a tone of objective assessment.
  4. convey the narrator's negative attitude.

Question 11.

Literary works by Jamaica Kincaid, Aimé Césaire, and Arundhati Roy frequently explore which of the following themes?

  1. the power and beauty of nature
  2. the consequences of new technology
  3. the effects and legacy of colonization
  4. the universality of the human condition

Read the excerpt below from "Why Are Some Feathers Blue?", an article by Helen Fields5; then answer the two questions that follow.

To find the origins of avian blue, Prum and his colleagues have analyzed hundreds of feathers—from representatives of almost every group that evolved blue coloration—at the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, where particle accelerators generate extremely strong X-rays.

Prum discovered that as a blue feather grows, something amazing happens. Inside each cell, stringy keratin molecules separate from water, like oil from vinegar. When the cell dies, the water dries away and is replaced by air, leaving a structure of keratin protein interspersed with air pockets, like a sponge or a box of spaghetti. When white light strikes a blue feather, the keratin pattern causes red and yellow wavelengths to cancel each other out, while blue wavelengths of light reinforce and amplify one another and reflect back to the beholder's eye. The result: blue, an example of what scientists call a structural color (as opposed to a pigmented color) because it's generated by light interacting with a feather's 3-D arrangement. And different shapes and sizes of these air pockets and keratin make different shades of blue.

Question 12.

Which of the following text structures is used in the excerpt?

  1. definition and classification
  2. problem and solution
  3. cause and effect
  4. compare and contrast

Question 13.

In the excerpt, the author's primary purpose is to:

  1. describe the methods scientists use to study bird feathers.
  2. analyze the physical characteristics of different bird feathers.
  3. evaluate various theories about why birds developed blue feathers.
  4. explain how the structure of bird feathers makes them appear blue.

Read the excerpt below from In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto (2008), a work of nonfiction by Michael Pollan6; then answer the two questions that follow.

Today in America the culture of food is changing more than once a generation, which is historically unprecedented—and dizzying.

What is driving such relentless change in the American diet? One force is a thirty-two-billion-dollar food-marketing machine that thrives on change for its own sake. Another is the constantly shifting ground of nutrition science that, depending on your point of view, is steadily advancing the frontiers of our knowledge about diet and health or is just changing its mind a lot because it is a flawed science that knows much less than it cares to admit. Part of what drove my grandparents' food culture from the American table was official scientific opinion, which, beginning in the  19 sixties , decided that animal fat was a deadly substance. And then there were the food manufacturers, which stood to make very little money from my grandmother's cooking, because she was doing so much of it from scratch—up to and including rendering her own cooking fats. Amplifying the "latest science," they managed to sell her daughter on the virtues of hydrogenated vegetable oils, the ones that we're now learning may be, well, deadly substances.

Sooner or later, everything solid we've been told about the links between our diet and our health seems to get blown away in the gust of the most recent study.

Question 14.

In the excerpt, Pollan uses the phrases "constantly shifting ground" and "blown away in the gust" primarily to:

  1. convey Americans' sense of confusion regarding dietary choices.
  2. emphasize the changing nature of information about nutrition.
  3. portray Americans as impressionable when it comes to diet.
  4. explain how science corrects misunderstandings about nutrition.

Question 15.

Which of the following inferences is supported by the last sentence of the excerpt?

  1. Americans' understanding of the relationship between diet and health is constantly improving.
  2. Scientific studies of nutrition are primarily a way to market new products to Americans.
  3. It is important to keep up to date with the latest research in order to maintain a healthy diet.
  4. Scientific claims about the relationship between diet and health are less reliable than Americans think.

Question 16.

Read the excerpt below from a government website; then answer the question that follows.

An apprenticeship is an arrangement in which you get hands-on training, technical instruction, and a paycheck—all at the same time. Apprentices work for a sponsor, such as an individual employer or a business-union partnership, who pays their wages and provides the training.

Formal apprenticeship programs usually last about 4 years, depending on the employer or occupation, although they may take as little as 12 months or as many as 6 years. Many of these programs are registered with the U.S. Department of Labor ( D O L ). At the end of a registered apprenticeship program, apprentices get a nationally recognized certificate of completion as proof of their skills.

The primary purpose of the excerpt is to:

  1. compare the duration of apprenticeships.
  2. persuade readers to apply for an apprenticeship.
  3. inform readers how apprenticeships work.
  4. identify careers that require an apprenticeship.

Question 17.

Read the excerpt below from "The Obsessive Life and Mysterious Death of the Fisherman Who Discovered the Loch Ness Monster" (2020), an article by Paul Brown7; then answer the question that follows.

Alexander "Sandy" Gray was born within sight of the loch on March 28, 1900. He grew up in Foyers, midway along the southeastern shore, in a secluded home known as the Bungalow. His father, Hugh, was a foreman at the British Aluminium Works smelting plant, which was hydroelectric-powered by the dramatic 140-foot cascade of the Falls of Foyers. The stone gable–fronted plant employed several hundred workers, and since opening in 1896 it had transformed Foyers from a tiny sheep-farming community, where many residents spoke the Scots Gaelic language, into an expanding industrial village.

The Bungalow was a large green-painted wood and corrugated-tin structure surrounded by well-kept lawns, rose beds and vegetable patches. Set in trees behind the plant, it had separate dwellings for family and for lodgers, and it became a hostel for plant workers. It also had a large room known as the Bungalow Hall, where Sandy's mother, Janet, hosted tea parties for the local community and his father hosted temperance meetings. The Bungalow Hall also served as Foyers' church and schoolhouse before the villagers built dedicated buildings.

A student is using the article as a source to develop a research report. Which of the following summaries of the excerpt would be most appropriate to use in the report?

  1. Born in the industrial village of Foyers on March 28, 1900, Alexander "Sandy" Gray grew up near the loch in a house called the Bungalow, a large compound that provided housing for local workers.
  2. Alexander "Sandy" Gray was born to a man named Hugh, who worked as a foreman at the local smelting plant, which had been open since 1896—four years before "Sandy" was born.
  3. Growing up in the Bungalow, an estate lush with gardens and separate outbuildings, Alexander "Sandy" Gray found himself near the loch and the smelting plant where his father worked.
  4. Alexander "Sandy" Gray was the child of Hugh and Janet Gray; Hugh was an employee of the smelting factory, as well as a charming host, and Janet threw lovely tea parties for the community.

Question 18.

Read the excerpt below from "My Heart Opens to Your Voice" (2016), an essay by Olivia Laing8; then answer the question that follows.

Warhol is often thought of as being completely subsumed by the glossy carapace of his own celebrity, of having successfully transformed himself into an instantly recognizable avatar, just as his screen-prints of Marilyn and Elvis and Jackie Kennedy convert the actual face into the endlessly reproducible lineaments of the star. But one of the interesting things about his work, once you stop to look, is the way the real, vulnerable, human self remains stubbornly visible, exerting its own submerged pressure, its own mute appeal to the viewer.

Which of the following words is closest in meaning to lineaments as it is used in the excerpt?

  1. binds
  2. traits
  3. rules
  4. lines

Question 19.

Read the excerpt below from "Dreaming of Water with Tiger Salamanders" (2022), an essay by Sam Keck Scott9; then answer the question that follows.

Tiger salamanders live a double life—they need both wet and dry places in close proximity. For most of the year, they stay underground in the burrows of other animals, or in large cracks in the adobe soil. But when the rains come, they emerge from their subterranean lairs to migrate in their slow, salamandery way: padding out across the land to a nearby breeding pond, which must be ephemeral to ensure no predatory fish can take up residence in them. After breeding, the adults move upland again, leaving their eggs to hatch into larvae, who metamorphose either quickly or slowly depending on the speed at which their pool is drying up. Once the larvae grow legs, maturing into juveniles who breathe air through lungs instead of gills, they too migrate upland to find an underground home, where they remain for the two to five years it will take them to reach breeding age.

Which of the following statements best describes the point of view of the author?

  1. The author admires the ingenuity and resilience of tiger salamanders.
  2. The author finds the migration habits of tiger salamanders foolish.
  3. The author is matter of fact in his discussion of tiger salamanders.
  4. The author is somber in his assessment of tiger salamanders.

Question 20.

According to research, which of the following statements accurately describes the relationship between English learners' home language and their acquisition of English?

  1. English learners who focus on preventing interference from their home language have better learning outcomes in English.
  2. Using their home language inhibits English learners' acquisition of English.
  3. English learners' literacy in their home language facilitates their literacy in English.
  4. Communicating with peers in their home language causes English learners to develop fossilized errors in English.

Question 21.

When writing, an English learner places nouns before adjectives, as they would in their home language. This type of usage is an example of:

  1. language transfer.
  2. input hypothesis.
  3. code meshing.
  4. formulaic language.

Question 22.

While reading a short story, a sixth-grade English learner comes across an unfamiliar idiomatic expression. Which of the following instructional strategies would best support the student's comprehension of the expression?

  1. modeling how to use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words
  2. teaching the meaning of the idiom and providing examples of it in different contexts
  3. asking the student to draw a visual representation of the idiom to infer its meaning
  4. providing a minilesson on the difference between literal and figurative language

Question 23.

After sixth-grade students read an informational article, the teacher provides the following sentence stems for students to complete.

  • Before reading, I thought ________.
  • When the author says, ________, it made me think ________.

The sentence stems would most effectively support students' ability to:

  1. understand the author's purpose.
  2. make inferences about the text.
  3. identify the central idea of the text.
  4. analyze the author's word choice.

Question 24.

Knowledge of the prefix "con-" would best support a reader's ability to determine the meaning of which of the following words?

  1. confluence
  2. consumer
  3. concerned
  4. conscientious

Question 25.

A seventh-grade teacher is about to begin a new unit on genetics with an emphasis on mutations. Which of the following types of vocabulary words from the unit would be most appropriate for the teacher to pre-teach?

  1. high-frequency, phonetically irregular words
  2. high-frequency words that have multiple meanings
  3. multisyllable words made up of two or more syllable types
  4. words that are conceptually challenging

Question 26.

Using anticipation guides to preview informational texts prior to reading would be the most effective reading strategy to use for which of the following purposes?

  1. activating background knowledge
  2. identifying supporting details
  3. evaluating the author's credibility
  4. analyzing organizational structure

Question 27.

Use the list below to answer the question that follows.

  • discordant
  • ineluctable
  • irrepressible
  • miscreant
  • uncorroborated

Which of the following strategies would be most effective for a reader to use to identify the meanings of the words on the list?

  1. distinguishing onsets and rimes in the words
  2. applying knowledge of connotative meaning
  3. applying knowledge of base words and prefixes
  4. recognizing letter-sound correspondences in the words

Question 28.

A student receives the following text message from a friend: "Sorry, but I can't make the movie tonight—I'm in hot water with my parents. I'll tell you about the trouble at school tomorrow." The student could best understand the meaning of the idiomatic expression "in hot water" in this context by using which of the following strategies?

  1. recalling other idioms that refer to water or heat
  2. determining the relationship of the words in the phrase
  3. considering the connotative meaning of each word
  4. assessing the contextual information conveyed in the statement

Question 29.

Use the sentence below to answer the question that follows.

Though they were once ubiquitous, pay phones are increasingly ________ across the United States.

Which of the following words, if inserted in the blank, would provide the best clue for the meaning of ubiquitous as it is used in the sentence?

  1. rare
  2. expensive
  3. found
  4. unnecessary

Question 30.

Which of the following instructional strategies would most effectively address the learning needs of students with dyslexia?

  1. providing graphic organizers to track main ideas
  2. modeling the use of context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words
  3. providing explicit instruction in decoding skills
  4. modeling comprehension-monitoring strategies while reading a text aloud

Question 31.

An eighth-grade teacher plans a lesson to support students' ability to analyze the use of foreshadowing in narratives. Which of the following instructional approaches effectively uses culturally relevant teaching to support the needs of students from diverse backgrounds?

  1. modeling how to identify foreshadowing and make predictions while reading a story
  2. having students discuss examples of foreshadowing where aspects of their culture are presented
  3. providing graphic organizers to help students track foreshadowing in a teacher-selected story
  4. assigning students to write their own narratives that make use of foreshadowing

Read the passage below, which contains errors in standard written American English; then answer the two questions that follow.

 sentence 1 Penguins are most often associated with Antarctica, however there is one species that can be found just north of the equator on the Galápagos islands.  sentence 2 At roughly 50 centimeters tall, the Galápagos penguin is less than half the size of Antarctica's emperor penguin.  sentence 3 This fact is consistent with Bergmann's rule, which states that there is a correlation between the temperature of an environment and the size of species found there.  sentence 4 According to this principal, larger species tend to be found in the colder climates of the polar regions, while smaller species are found closer to the equator.  sentence 5 However, the smallest species of penguin—the little penguin—is found in Australia and New Zealand—farther south than the Galápagos penguin.

Question 32.

Which of the following sentences in the passage contains an error in usage?

  1. Sentence 2
  2. Sentence 3
  3. Sentence 4
  4. Sentence 5

Question 33.

Which of the following revisions corrects the error in sentence structure in Sentence 1 of the passage?

  1. Penguins are most often associated with Antarctica. However there is one species that can be found just north of the equator on the Galápagos islands.
  2. Penguins are most often associated with Antarctica; however there is one species that can be found just north of the equator on the Galápagos islands.
  3. Penguins are most often associated with Antarctica, however, there is one species that can be found just north of the equator on the Galápagos islands.
  4. Penguins are most often associated with Antarctica; however, there is one species that can be found just north of the equator on the Galápagos islands.

Question 34.

Creating a reverse outline of draft essays would most effectively support students' ability to revise which of the following elements of their writing?

  1. use of transitions
  2. concluding statement
  3. supporting evidence
  4. organization of ideas

Question 35.

A student is writing an informative essay about how the growth of online streaming services has changed the music industry. Which of the following organizational structures would be most effective for the student's purpose?

  1. compare and contrast
  2. problem and solution
  3. cause and effect
  4. chronological sequence

Question 36.

Which of the following sentences contains an error in capitalization?

  1. On the grounds of the art museum in Bentonville, Arkansas, you'll find a house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
  2. They read that the best thing to drink after a run was Chocolate Milk, and now they always crave a big tall glass.
  3. You might not believe it, but my friends and I love to listen to The Beatles while we volunteer at the food pantry.
  4. Jenna's aunt and uncle grew hydrangeas, daisies, tulips, and black-eyed Susans in their back garden.

Question 37.

An eighth-grade teacher wants to use digital technology to provide students with an authentic writing task to develop their ability to write for a specific purpose and audience. Which of the following student activities would best accomplish this goal?

  1. collaborating to create a class Web page featuring articles about school news
  2. writing and delivering a class presentation with an accompanying slideshow
  3. scripting and filming a commercial that demonstrates persuasive techniques
  4. using an online message board to participate in a discussion with classmates

Question 38.

Read the paragraph below from the first draft of an informative essay; then answer the question that follows.

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages throughout the world, and its global popularity is reflected in its history. While coffee plants originated in Ethiopia, coffee first achieved popularity as a beverage in Arabia and Turkey, where coffeehouses appeared throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. By the eighteenth century, coffee drinking had spread throughout Europe and its American colonies. ____________________________________________________________. Originally cultivated on the Arabian peninsula, coffee is now grown in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Today, Brazil is the world's leading producer of coffee.

Which of the following sentences, if inserted in the blank, would best support a logical development of the central idea?

  1. Coffee's popularity is largely due to the stimulating effects of caffeine.
  2. As coffee's popularity increased, production also spread across the globe.
  3. Coffee was cultivated on the island of Java in the seventeenth century.
  4. While popular worldwide as a drink, coffee grows best in tropical climates.

Question 39.

A student is conducting research for an argumentative essay about the importance of investing in renewable energy sources. Which of the following research questions would provide the most effective focus for the student's essay?

  1. What types of renewable energy sources are currently in use?
  2. How much does it cost to develop renewable energy sources?
  3. What are the advantages of using renewable energy sources?
  4. How do renewable energy sources differ from nonrenewable sources?

Question 40.

A student uses an Internet search engine to find information about the playwright Yasmina Reza. Which of the following  U R L's  resulting from the student's search would likely lead the student to the most reliable source of information?

  2.  https://www.A Z 9 4 8 9-Yasmina underscore Reza 
  3.  https://e n.wikipedia.o r g/wiki/Yasmina underscore Reza 
  4.   https:// t d p s.berkeley.e d u/yasmina-reza 

Question 41.

A student wants to use an Internet search engine to find out if magnolia trees are native to Massachusetts. Which of the following combinations of keywords and Boolean operators would likely lead the student most directly to information about magnolia trees?

  1. Massachusetts OR magnolia OR magnolia tree
  2. magnolia tree native AND Massachusetts OR state
  3. magnolia AND tree AND native tree AND what state
  4. Massachusetts AND native plant AND magnolia tree

Question 42.

A student is conducting research about the effects of the American Revolution on American society in the late  17 hundreds . Which of the following sources would provide the student with the most relevant information for their topic?

  1. a collection of letters written by soldiers during the American Revolution
  2. an encyclopedia entry about the American Revolution written by a historian
  3. a military history book detailing major battles of the American Revolution
  4. an article about how the Enlightenment influenced the American Revolution

Question 43.

Read the paragraph below from the first draft of an informative essay; then answer the question that follows.

Sleep is an important part of overall health, with experts recommending 8 to 10 hours per night for adolescents. Yet many students report that they do not get enough sleep each night. This lack of sleep can have many negative consequences. ____________________________________________________________. Establishing healthy sleep habits is critical to students' health as well as their academic success.

Which of the following sentences, if inserted into the blank, would effectively integrate information from a source using a quote?

  1. According to the CDC, "[A]dolescents who do not get enough sleep have a higher risk of obesity, diabetes, injuries, poor mental health, and problems with attention and behavior."
  2. "Children and adolescents who do not get enough sleep have a higher risk of obesity, diabetes, injuries, poor mental health, and problems with attention and behavior (CDC)."
  3. These consequences can include, for example, "higher risks of obesity, diabetes, injuries, poor mental health, and problems with attention and behavior."
  4. The CDC states: "Children and adolescents who do not get enough sleep have a higher risk of obesity, diabetes, injuries, poor mental health, and problems with attention and behavior."

Question 44.

Use the citation from a Works Cited page to answer the question that follows.

Helfand, Zach. "Invasion of the Robot Umpires." The New Yorker, 23 August 2021,

According to Modern Language Association (MLA) style, which of the following additional pieces of information should the student include in the source citation?

  1. publication date
  2. date accessed
  3. name of the publisher
  4. name of the author

Question 45.

A sixth-grade student is giving an oral report on the novel Hatchet. To prepare for the speech, the student should:

  1. incorporate visual aids and props.
  2. use a thesaurus to enhance their vocabulary.
  3. memorize the script verbatim.
  4. practice speaking at an appropriate pace.

Question 46.

A student is developing a class presentation about how to make healthy eating choices. Which of the following types of digital media, if embedded in the presentation, would most effectively support the audience's comprehension of the topic?

  1. a video clip of a chef demonstrating various ways to prepare vegetables
  2. an animated graphic highlighting and defining key features of nutrition labels
  3. a bar graph comparing the amount of sugar per serving in popular soft drinks
  4. an audio clip of an interview where a professional athlete describes their diet

Question 47.

Read the excerpt below from a conversation between three coworkers at a cafe; then answer the question that follows.

Worker 1: This menu is getting stale. We need to come up with some fresh choices.

Worker 2: There's always leftover pita. It's definitely the underutilized grain.

Worker 3: People used to love the naan burrito.

Worker 2: The pita burrito? I like the ring of that. But didn't we take the naan burrito off the menu because it wasn't selling?

Worker 3: No, we just wanted to switch it up. Actually, people ask about it all the time.

Worker 2: Yeah, true. They do.

Worker 3: But, you know how it is: As soon as you give them what they've been asking for, they stop wanting it.

Worker 1: ____________________________________________________________

Which of the following responses from Worker 1 would most clearly indicate that they have been actively listening to Worker 2 and Worker 3 and want to build on their ideas?

  1. Naan is so delicious. I used to love making a bunch of extra garlic butter and just taking a couple pieces of naan to the picnic table on my lunch break. It's basically a vehicle for garlic butter. So yum.
  2. I think it's worth a shot. If we're not selling the pita, and people miss the naan burrito, I think pita burrito is a good bet. After all, if no one orders it, we're in the same place we are now: surplus pita.
  3. The thing people ask me about, weirdly, is kulfi. I mean, we don't have frozen desserts on the menu. Why do they think we've got a secret kulfi stash? I mean, I wish we did. Some mango kulfi right now? Mmm.
  4. Should we even offer pita? Our most popular items are the salads, it seems to me. Maybe we should tear the leftover pita into croutons. Croutons always make a salad sing. Or we could just stop ordering pita.

Question 48.

A school board member is planning to present information to fellow members about a new school policy intended to support the creation of more student extracurricular organizations. Given the board member's audience and purpose, which of the following strategies would be most appropriate for the board member to use?

  1. presenting visual representations of bank accounts that show a budget surplus
  2. beginning the presentation with an impassioned endorsement from the student council president
  3. concluding the presentation by summarizing several key points for listeners
  4. pausing in the middle of the presentation to ask members to reflect on their extracurricular experiences

Question 49.

A sixth-grade student is researching the cuisine of Honduras for a group project on the country's culture. Which of the following strategies would be most effective for the student to use to present their research findings during a discussion with groupmates about the project?

  1. questioning other group members about their research topics
  2. reading from prepared lecture notes to summarize their research
  3. providing a list of sources that they found helpful for their topic
  4. building off other group members' comments with relevant information

Question 50.

A seventh-grade student is watching a video of a speech on building self-confidence. Which of the following approaches would best help the student determine whether the speaker's message is based on fact or opinion?

  1. identifying the types of supporting details provided by the speaker
  2. noting the speaker's use of vocal modulation and nonverbal cues
  3. analyzing the authenticity of the speaker's social media presence
  4. evaluating the speaker's academic and professional credentials

Read the excerpt below from the Greek historian Polybius (second century BCE); then answer the two questions that follow.

Whenever one of [the Romans'] illustrious men dies, as a part of the funeral the body with all its adornments is carried into the Forum to the rostra, as a raised platform there is called. Sometimes the body is propped upright upon it so as to be easily seen, or more rarely it is laid upon the rostra. The speaker is the son, if the deceased has left one of full age who is present at the time; or, failing a son, one of his kinsmen mounts the rostra, while all the people are standing round, and delivers a speech concerning the virtues of the deceased and the successful exploits performed by him in his lifetime. By these measures the people are reminded of what has been done and made to see it with their own eyes—not only those persons who were engaged in the actual transactions but those also who were not. Their sympathies are so deeply moved that the loss appears not to be confined to the actual mourners, but to be a public one affecting the whole community.

Question 51.

A historian could most effectively use the excerpt to support which of the following arguments?

  1. Competitiveness among Roman families contributed to social conflict.
  2. Roman elites justified their power through celebrating their public service.
  3. Roman beliefs regarding death were primarily political rather than spiritual.
  4. Funerary practices of the Romans exaggerated the achievements of the deceased.

Question 52.

In analyzing the excerpt, a historian would need to consider the author's Greek identity primarily because the author would:

  1. not have access to accurate information.
  2. possess the perspective of an outsider.
  3. more likely draw incorrect conclusions.
  4. be prone to bias as a result of prejudice.

Question 53.

The expansion of the kingdom of Axum during the sixth century  C E  contributed to which of the following developments?

  1. the growth of the trans-Saharan gold trade
  2. the spread of Christianity into Ethiopia
  3. the growth of the Indian Ocean spice trade
  4. the spread of Islam into Egypt

Question 54.

The third through sixth centuries  C E  is often referred to as the "Golden Age of India" primarily because of the:

  1. expansion of Gupta military power throughout South and Southeast Asia.
  2. wealth generated by the development of export crops such as cotton and tea.
  3. preservation of oral epics such as the Rig Veda though the adoption of writing.
  4. cultural and scientific achievements made possible by the stability of Gupta rule.

Question 55.

The historical development of the early Andean civilization known as Chavin is primarily reflected in the:

  1. creation of temple complexes and religious works of art.
  2. construction of an extensive network of roads and bridges.
  3. existence of centralized and bureaucratically governed states.
  4. establishment of trade networks with Central American societies.

Question 56.

Use the image of the ruins of Teotihuacan10 to answer the question that follows.

A photograph of the runes of an ancient city taken from a perspective high above the ground. A massive steppe pyramid towers above several smaller steppe pyramids along a central road. The road terminates at the base of the largest pyramid.

In the style of its architecture and the layout of its urban plan, the society of Teotihuacan most influenced which of the following early societies of South and Central America?

  1. Olmec
  2. Nazca
  3. Toltec
  4. Inca

Question 57.

In the eighth century  C E , Confucianism and Buddhism influenced the development of Japanese culture primarily as a result of the:

  1. military conquest of Japan by an expansionist Tang dynasty.
  2. migration of nomadic peoples to Japan from Chinese frontier areas.
  3. foundation of colonies of Chinese settlers in Japanese coastal regions.
  4. adoption of Chinese cultural practices by Japanese political elites.

Question 58.

Read the excerpt from the Qur'an below; then answer the question that follows.

We believe in God and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed unto Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and that which the Prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered.

Which of the following characteristics of Islam is reflected in the excerpt?

  1. prohibition of polytheistic religious beliefs and practices
  2. connection between religious faith and cultural diffusion
  3. continuity of Islamic doctrine with Judaism and Christianity
  4. religious revelations are exclusive to male Muslims

Question 59.

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the exchange and exploitation of resources by European colonial powers was primarily motivated by the desire to acquire:

  1. raw materials to support the development of industry.
  2. new opportunities for the investment of capital derived from slavery.
  3. consumer markets for the export of manufactured goods.
  4. wealth to support the growth and expansion of state military forces.

Read the excerpt below from "The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution" by a minister in the American colonies (1644); then answer the two questions that follow.

God requireth not an uniformity of religion to be enacted and enforced in any civil State; which enforced uniformity sooner or later is the greatest occasion of civil war, ravishing of conscience, persecution of Christ Jesus in His servants, and of the hypocrisy and destruction of millions of souls.

Question 60.

The information in the excerpt best represents the religious views associated with the founding of which of the following colonies?

  1. Virginia
  2. Georgia
  3. New Jersey
  4. Rhode Island

Question 61.

The ideas in the excerpt informed the conception of which of the following clauses of the U.S. Constitution?

  1. due process clause
  2. free exercise clause
  3. equal protection clause
  4. necessary and proper clause

Read the advertisement below by Thomas Jefferson from The Virginia Gazette (1769); then answer the two questions that follow.

Run away from the subscriber in Albemarle, a Mulatto slave called Sandy, about 35 years of age, his stature is rather low, inclining to corpulence, and his complexion light; he is a shoemaker by trade, in which he uses his left hand principally, can do coarse carpenters work, and is something of a horse jockey; he is greatly addicted to drink, and when drunk is insolent and disorderly, in his conversation he swears much, and in his behaviour is artful and knavish. He took with him a white horse, much scarred with traces, of which it is expected he will endeavour to dispose; he also carried his shoemakers tools, and will probably endeavour to get employment that way. Whoever conveys the said slave to me in Albemarle, shall have 40 s. reward, if taken up within the county, 4 l. if elsewhere within the colony, and 10 l. if in any other colony, from

Thomas Jefferson.

Question 62.

The information in the excerpt best supports which of the following statements about slavery in the American colonies?

  1. America's early leaders viewed enslaved people as their property.
  2. Enslavers viewed the people they enslaved as unintelligent and unmotivated.
  3. Enslaved people with skills were not highly valued if they resisted slavery.
  4. America's early leaders emancipated enslaved people in their wills.

Question 63.

The excerpt would be most effective in promoting informed academic discussion of which of the following topics?

  1. the role that the colonial press played in maintaining and upholding slavery
  2. analysis of the use of slavery in nonagricultural sectors of the economy
  3. increased demand for enslaved people as a result of labor shortages
  4. the living conditions for enslaved people throughout the American colonies

Read the excerpt below from The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (1956) by Kenneth M. Stampp11; then answer the two questions that follow.

Town slaves worked in cotton presses, tanneries, shipyards, bakehouses, and laundries, as dock laborers and stevedores, and as clerks in stores. Masters who owned skilled artisans such as barbers, blacksmiths, cabinet makers, and shoemakers often provided them with shops to make their services available to all who might wish to employ them. Many white mechanics used slave assistants.

The quality of the work of slave artisans had won favorable comment as early as the eighteenth century. Among them were "many ingenious Mechanicks," wrote a colonial Georgian, "and as far as they have had opportunity of being instructed, have discovered as good abilities, as are usually found among people of our Colony."

Question 64.

The excerpt best supports which of the following conclusions about the enslavement of African Americans?

  1. Most enslaved African Americans lived and worked in towns and cities, mostly in the South.
  2. Slaveholders rarely invested in training the people they owned to give them valuable skills.
  3. The system of slavery allowed for substantial upward mobility and rising incomes for African Americans.
  4. Slavery supported more of the economy of colonial America than just plantation agriculture.

Question 65.

A teacher using the excerpt in a unit of instruction on U.S. history should add which of the following sources to provide contrast and context for the author's observations?

  1. the U.S. Bureau of the Census record
  2. an excerpt from an autobiography by Frederick Douglass
  3. ledgers from plantations that relied on enslaved labor
  4. a short passage describing the southern agrarian economy from a history textbook

Read the passage below; then answer the two questions that follow.

Abraham Lincoln's family of origin lived as small farmers in Kentucky for several years. Each of the three farms purchased by Abraham's father Thomas Lincoln became involved in title disputes of one kind or another, stemming from the fact that the land of Kentucky had never been systematically surveyed. There, plots of land were often established with reference to the locations of trees or rocks or bends in a river or stream. When trees died or were felled, rocks moved, or the course of rivers altered by floods or other means, land titles became confused and contested. In Indiana and other territories north of the Ohio River, by contrast, plots of land were very often laid out according to straight lines of latitude and longitude, and clear title to landownership was therefore much easier to establish and defend in the event of a legal dispute. In 1816 Thomas Lincoln joined a movement of farmers out of Kentucky into Indiana, mostly for this reason involving land titles.

Question 66.

Based on the passage, which of the following historical circumstances most influenced the differences between Kentucky and Indiana?

  1. laws Congress passed, including the Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  2. President Jefferson's purchase of the territory of Louisiana in 1803
  3. Tecumseh's call for Native Peoples to resist the taking of their land in 1810
  4. the conduct and outcome of the War of 1812

Question 67.

Information in the passage best illustrates which of the following geographical themes?

  1. Push factors are often more decisive than pull factors in influencing patterns of human migration.
  2. Cultural diffusion and convergence often give rise to geographic and historical effects.
  3. Physical geographic factors contribute in complex ways to the development of cultural identity.
  4. Economic and political factors can influence human use of land and physical space.

Question 68.

Which of the following statements best differentiates political characteristics of the  Mo hawk  Peoples from the Wampanoag Peoples?

  1. The Wampanoag Peoples continue to conduct council meetings in Algonquin.
  2. The  Mo hawk  Peoples were members of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy.
  3. The Wampanoag Peoples are governed by informal leaders known as sachems.
  4. The  Mo hawk  Peoples were considered one of the "five civilized tribes" due to their adoption of democracy.

Question 69.

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

  • They allied with the British in the American Revolution.
  • They suffered the loss of territory to Europeans.
  • They resisted colonialism.
  • They enslaved Africans.

The information best describes which of the following Native Peoples?

  1. Mashpee
  2. Pueblo
  3. Shawnee
  4. Cherokee

Question 70.

The British Parliament most served as a model for which of the following institutions in the British colonies of North America?

  1. colonial governorship
  2. House of Burgesses
  3. colonial courts
  4. College of William & Mary

Question 71.

The press in the English colonies during the eighteenth century contributed to the American Revolution primarily by:

  1. undermining religious authorities as a source of trustworthy information.
  2. stimulating the creation of political parties favoring independence.
  3. provoking violent action against colonial authorities and Loyalists.
  4. enhancing the political awareness of an increasingly literate population.

Question 72.

In which of the following ways did the Louisiana Purchase contribute to the growth of sectionalism in the United States?

  1. displacing Native Peoples from lands west of the Mississippi
  2. stimulating the development of New England as a manufacturing center
  3. allowing the expansion of slavery and the plantation system
  4. increasing tensions over access to federal land in backcountry regions

Read the excerpt below from a nineteenth-century song written shortly after the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine in 1898; then answer the two questions that follow.

Lend your ear to the whisper, it floats from afar,
It has traveled from where, underneath her lone star,
The fair isle of Cuba impatiently waits
The summons to enter our circle of states.
From the depths of her anguish the throes of her pain,
That whisper comes to us, "Remember the ‘Maine’."

Question 73.

Which of the following developments is most reflected in the excerpt?

  1. the use of guerilla warfare by the Philippine independence movement
  2. the creation of sensational headlines by the yellow press
  3. the popularity of a potential U.S. war with Spain
  4. the investigation of the incident by muckraking journalists

Question 74.

The excerpt would be most supportive of which of the following research questions?

  1. How have media influenced U.S. foreign intervention?
  2. What military strategies best work in tropical locations?
  3. What role did nationalism play in the Bay of Pigs invasion?
  4. How does memory shape the narratives historians tell?

Question 75.

Which of the following developments best describes the primary result of the Indian Removal Act of 1830?

  1. Native Peoples were declared citizens of sovereign nations in order to make them legally eligible to sell their lands.
  2. Native Peoples who lived in the Ohio River Valley and Kentucky were forcibly displaced by settlers from eastern states.
  3. Native Peoples were compelled to leave the southeastern states and resettle in territories west of the Mississippi River.
  4. Native Peoples of school age were forced from their homes to attend boarding schools run by the federal government.

Question 76.

Use the political cartoon below from 1856 to answer the question that follows.

A political cartoon with the title, Forcing Slavery Down the Throat of a Freesoiler, on the bottom. There is a giant white man in plain clothing tied down and restrained by four small white people dressed in suits labeled as Douglas, Pierce, Cass, and Buchanan. The four small men hold the giant's mouth open and try to force an enslaved black man into the giant's mouth. The giant's head rests on a platform labeled Democratic Platform with the words Kansas, Cuba, and Central America. The giant says, Murder! Help neighbors help, Oh my poor wife and children. In the background a person is hanging from a tree by the neck and a woman and child are fleeing a burning house.

The author of the cartoon is attempting to convey which of the following messages?

  1. The violence in Kansas is being perpetrated by abolitionists to further the Democratic platform.
  2. The proslavery politicians are using political violence against abolitionists to win elections.
  3. The violence in Kansas is being perpetrated by proslavery forces to further the Republican platform.
  4. The principal of popular sovereignty is being used to stop the institution of slavery from spreading west.

Question 77.

Use the political cartoon below from 1861 to answer the question that follows.

A political cartoon with the title, Scott's Great Snake, at the top in star–spangled and striped lettering. Below the title is a cartoon map of the United States in 1861 during the Civil War. Each state is labeled and features a cartoon related to the state's history or economy. A giant snake is wrapped around the southern states from Missouri to Virginia. The tail of the snake grips a U.S. flag in Washington D.C. and the body of the snake moves south down the Atlantic coast around the Carolinas further south to Florida then northwest along the Gulf of Mexico. The body of the snake continues northwest around Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The star–spangled and striped head of the snake is raised in movement across Missouri facing southeast toward Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia.

Which of the following strategies is best represented in the cartoon?

  1. the Union's plan for a naval blockade of the Confederacy
  2. the Confederacy's plan to endure and win a defensive war on familiar territory
  3. the Union's attempt to destroy the industrial infrastructure of the Confederacy
  4. the Confederacy's attempt to extend the fighting to poorly defended areas in the West

Question 78.

Which of the following challenges concerning the rights of African Americans in the Reconstruction era retained the most prominence during the Civil Rights Movement?

  1. being free from discrimination in the workplace
  2. moving from southern to northern cities
  3. securing the right to own property
  4. exercising the right to vote

Question 79.

Which of the following early twentieth-century developments best represents the conflict in American culture between traditionalism and modernity?

  1. the Great Migration
  2. the Scopes Trial
  3. the influenza pandemic
  4. the Harlem Renaissance

Question 80.

Which of the following events marks the beginning of the LGBTQ rights movement in the United States?

  1. Stonewall Rebellion
  2. Wounded Knee incident
  3. March on Washington
  4. Summer of Love

Question 81.

President Theodore Roosevelt supported a political revolution in Panama in 1903 primarily for which of the following reasons?

  1. acquiring the area as a territory or colony of the United States
  2. deterring European intervention in Central America
  3. weakening the influence of South American nations in the area
  4. securing land rights for the construction of a canal

Question 82.

Use the examples below to answer the question that follows.

  • Athens in the wars between Athens and Sparta
  • The Greek city-states in the Persian Wars
  • Rome in the wars between Rome and Carthage

Which common factor influencing geopolitical conflict between places and peoples throughout history is shared by the places identified in the examples?

  1. These places were quickly gaining influence that threatened the position of a long-established rival for power.
  2. These places had developed new religious practices that undermined the authority of spiritual leaders of a rival.
  3. These places formed alliances with the top superpower of their time to challenge the economic power of a nearby rival.
  4. These places needed the agricultural resources of the fertile frontier that separated them from a powerful rival.

Question 83.

Lake Victoria is located in close proximity to which of the following geographical features?

  1. Arabian Peninsula
  2. Indo-Gangetic Plain
  3. Great Rift Valley
  4. Cape Horn

Question 84.

Which of the following modern countries is located in the cultural region of Southeast Asia?

  1. Thailand
  2. Korea
  3. Bangladesh
  4. Nepal

Question 85.

Which of the following geographic factors has most influenced the agricultural and settlement patterns on the continent of Australia?

  1. arid and semiarid conditions throughout most of the continent
  2. a mountain range that divides the southwest from the rest of the continent
  3. monsoonal winds and rains that define the climate of the southern half of the continent
  4. geological conditions that produced extremely fertile farmland across the west of the continent

Question 86.

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, an area extending from eastern Asia to eastern Europe experienced a period of relatively stable and prosperous cross-cultural cooperation. This development was primarily made possible by:

  1. an understanding that Enlightenment practices could bring about progress.
  2. the extension of the political authority of the Mongol Empire across the area.
  3. a new way of thinking after the devastating loss of life during the Bubonic plague.
  4. the diffusion of Islam and Buddhism into previously Christian and animist populations.

Question 87.

Read the passage below; then answer the question that follows.

Historians describe a recurring pattern in Chinese history known as Sinicization, in which non-Chinese societies adopt many of the cultural practices of China's dominant Han ethnic group. Most often this has involved the extension of Han religious, philosophical, and lifestyle norms to people in regions that have come under the military and political control of the Chinese empire. This pattern even includes the Sinicization of non-Chinese peoples who have conquered and ruled over the Han Chinese, including the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

The passage best supports which of the following statements about human geography?

  1. Differences in power between people of different social classes can lead to cultural conflict.
  2. Geographic and historical factors combine to influence the ways that peoples interact.
  3. The process of cultural diffusion can also take the form of cultural convergence.
  4. Ethnocentrism has long been a primary cause of the oppression of subject peoples.

Question 88.

The development of a complex urbanized society in ancient Mesopotamia was assisted most by which of the following modifications of the physical environment?

  1. the construction of irrigation systems
  2. the practice of terraced agriculture
  3. the mining of metal ores
  4. the diversion of rivers prone to flooding

Question 89.

A major weakness of the government under the Articles of Confederation was that it:

  1. could not negotiate treaties with foreign nations.
  2. lacked the power to raise any army.
  3. could not organize territories or admit new states.
  4. lacked the ability to tax citizens directly.

Question 90.

Which of the following powers is concurrent to both federal and state governments?

  1. printing money
  2. issuing driver's licenses
  3. levying taxes
  4. enforcing treaties

Question 91.

In the United States, which of the following rights is also considered a legal obligation that applies specifically to citizens?

  1. voting in an election
  2. paying state and federal taxes
  3. serving on a jury
  4. requesting legal representation

Question 92.

An interest group is engaging in a campaign in which they send emails to state representatives to support a piece of legislation. Which of the following clauses from the First Amendment protects the activities of this group?

  1. "establishment of religion"
  2. "freedom of  dot dot dot  the press"
  3. "the right of the people peaceably to assemble"
  4. "petition the Government"

Question 93.

Which of the following classroom activities best illustrates taking informed action within a democratic society?

  1. A teacher models calling a Senator's office to leave a message about potential legislation.
  2. Students research contemporary issues and write letters to the president expressing their opinions.
  3. A teacher organizes a field trip to the state house for a tour led by their representative.
  4. Students debate public policy positions in front of their classmates.

Question 94.

Read the excerpt below from Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address (1801); then answer the question that follows.

All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression.

The information in the excerpt best supports the Supreme Court's decision in which of the following cases?

  1. Dred Scott  versus  Sandford (1857)
  2. Plessy  versus  Ferguson (1896)
  3. Brown  versus  Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
  4. District of Columbia  versus  Heller (2008)

Question 95.

Use the image12 below to answer the question that follows.

A political cartoon with the title, Pillars, at the bottom. A classical-Greek style edifice labeled, Democracy, rests upon four pillars resembling giant rolled-up newspapers. The columns are labeled, Free Press, News, Media, and Press.

The author of the cartoon is attempting to convey which of the following messages?

  1. The First Amendment protects freedom of speech.
  2. The stability of democracy depends on a free press.
  3. Op-Ed columns often support candidates for public office.
  4. Competition among media outlets is good for democracy.

Question 96.

The phenomena of media consolidation has resulted in:

  1. fewer news outlets covering local politics.
  2. an increase in editorial diversity and plurality.
  3. a wider variety of opinions expressed on the news.
  4. people consuming less news on social media.

Question 97.

A teacher is planning a lesson about the American Thanksgiving holiday. Which of the following instructional strategies conflicts with current pedagogical best practices?

  1. recognizing the diversity of cultural foods served at Thanksgiving meals
  2. reading primary sources representing the perspectives of colonists and Native Peoples
  3. reenacting the Thanksgiving feast with students dressed as colonists and Native Peoples
  4. discussing various cultural traditions of expressing gratitude for food and shelter

Question 98.

Since the  18 thirties , historical interpretation of the presidency of Andrew Jackson has generally tended to change toward which of the following directions?

  1. more negatively due to new evidence about Jackson's personal abuses of power in office
  2. more positively because of Jackson's role in paying off all federal debts
  3. more negatively due to Jackson's support of the Indian Removal Act
  4. more positively because of Jackson's support of the spoils system

Question 99.

A teacher is planning a lesson about holidays celebrated during the winter. Which of the following instructional strategies conflicts with current pedagogical best practices?

  1. discussing various cultural traditions of gift giving and candle lighting
  2. displaying a holiday tree with student-made ornaments and decorations
  3. recognizing the diversity of cultural and religious practices in food and song
  4. reading primary sources representing multiple cultural and religious perspectives

Question 100.

A teacher is planning a lesson about Imperialism in the nineteenth century. Which of the following sources particularly requires proper contextualization to avoid reinforcing problematic narratives?

  1. a journal from an East India Company ship
  2. an excerpt from Rudyard Kipling's "The White Man's Burden"
  3. a map showing the results of the Partition of Africa
  4. an encyclopedia article about the African railway system

Open-Response Items

The directions shown below represent what you will see on the actual test. For the purposes of this practice test, you will be able to type your written responses in the boxes provided on the answer key.

This section of the test consists of two open-response item assignments. You will be asked to prepare a written response of approximately 150 to 300 words for each assignment. You should use your time to plan, write, review, and edit your response for each assignment.You must write responses to both of the assignments.

For each assignment, read the topic and directions carefully before you begin to work. Think about how you will organize your response.

As a whole, your response to each assignment must demonstrate an understanding of the knowledge of the field. In your response to each assignment, you are expected to demonstrate the depth of your understanding of the subject area by applying your knowledge rather than by merely reciting factual information.

Your response to each assignment will be evaluated based on the following criteria.

  • Purpose: the extent to which the response achieves the purpose of the assignment
  • Subject Knowledge: appropriateness and accuracy in the application of subject knowledge
  • Support: quality and relevance of supporting evidence
  • Rationale: soundness of argument and degree of understanding of the subject area

The open-response item assignments are intended to assess subject knowledge. Your responses must be communicated clearly enough to permit valid judgment of the evaluation criteria by scorers. Your responses should be written for an audience of educators in this field. The final version of each response should conform to the conventions of edited American English. Your responses should be your original work, written in your own words, and not copied or paraphrased from some other work.

Be sure to write about the assigned topics. You may not use any reference materials during the test. Remember to review your work and make any changes you think will improve your responses.

Question 101.

Use the information provided in the exhibits to complete the assignment that follows.

Using your knowledge of literature, write a response of approximately 150 to 300 words in which you:

  • identify and discuss a significant theme developed in the excerpt; and
  • explain how the author uses specific literary devices to support development of the theme you identified.

Be sure to cite specific evidence from the excerpt to support your response.

Read the excerpt below from The Piano Lesson (1987), a play by August Wilson13; then complete the assignment.

AVERY. You ought to start a choir at the church. Maybe if he seen you was doing something with it—if you told him you was gonna put it in my church—maybe he'd see it different. You ought to put it down in the church and start a choir. The Bible say "Make a joyful noise unto the Lord." Maybe if Boy Willie see you was doing something with it he'd see it different.

BERNIECE. I done told you I don't play on that piano. Ain't no need in you to keep talking this choir stuff. When my mama died I shut the top on that piano and I ain't never opened it since. I was only playing it for her. When my daddy died seem like all her life went into that piano. She used to have me playing on it  dot dot dot  had Miss Eula come in and teach me  dot dot dot  say when I played it she could hear my daddy talking to her. I used to think them pictures came alive and walked through the house. Sometime late at night I could hear my mama talking to them. I said that wasn't gonna happen to me. I don't play that piano cause I don't want to wake them spirits. They never be walking around in this house.

AVERY. You got to put all that behind you, Berniece.

BERNIECE. I got Maretha playing on it. She don't know nothing about it. Let her go on and be a schoolteacher or something. She don't have to carry all of that with her. She got a chance I didn't have. I ain't gonna burden her with that piano.

AVERY. You got to put all of that behind you, Berniece. That's the same thing like Crawley. Everybody got stones in their passway. You got to step over them or walk around them. You picking them up and carrying them with you. All you got to do is set them down by the side of the road. You ain't got to carry them with you. You can walk over there right now and play that piano. You can walk over there right now and God will walk over there with you. Right now you can set that sack of stones down by the side of the road and walk away from it. You don't have to carry it with you. You can do it right now. (AVERY crosses over to the piano and raises the lid.) Come on, Berniece  dot dot dot  set it down and walk away from it. Come on, play "Old Ship of Zion." Walk over here and claim it as an instrument of the Lord. You can walk over here right now and make it into a celebration. (BERNIECE moves toward the piano.)

BERNIECE. Avery  dot dot dot  I done told you I don't want to play that piano. Now or no other time.

Question 102.

Use the information provided in the exhibits to complete the assignment that follows.

Using your knowledge of history, write a response of approximately 150 to 300 words in which you:

  • use valid reasoning and evidence from the sources to construct a precise, knowledgeable claim in response to the discipline-specific inquiry question; and
  • analyze the central idea, purpose, and point of view of sources.

Be sure to cite specific evidence from the sources in your response.

Exhibit 1: Discipline-Specific Inquiry Question

In what ways did the differing philosophies of the two political parties shape key developments during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson?

Exhibit 2: Source #1

Mad Tom in a Rage,  circa  180114

Context: This cartoon etching by an anonymous artist portrays Thomas Jefferson. The speech balloon on the left reads, "Pull Away Pull Away my Son don't fear I'll give you all my assistance" and the one on the right reads, "Oh! I fear it is stronger rooted than I expected but with the assistance of my Old Friend and a little more Brandy I will bring it down."

A cartoon etching of Thomas Jefferson and a demon pulling ropes attached to a roman style column. The demon has horns, a tail, and hooves and stands behind Jefferson with its arms wrapped around him. The column is partially labeled Fed, Gov, G. Wash, and J. Adams. An eagle sits atop the column shooting lightning bolts down at Jefferson and the demon. An empty bottle labeled as brandy is near Jefferson's feet. The demon says, Pull Away Pull Away my Son don't fear I'll give you all my assistance. Jefferson says, Oh! I fear it is stronger rooted than I expected but with the assistance of my Old Friend and a little more Brandy I will bring it down.

Exhibit 3: Source #2

Thomas Jefferson, Excerpts from Inaugural Addresses, 1801 and 1805

Context: Thomas Jefferson became the third president of the United States after winning the election of 1800. He was reelected four years later. The two inaugural addresses were delivered on March 4 of 1801 and 1805.

First Inaugural Address, 1801

During the contest of opinion through which we have passed the animation of discussions and of exertions has sometimes worn an aspect which might impose on strangers unused to think freely and to speak and to write what they think.

But this being now decided by the voice of the nation, announced according to the rules of the Constitution, all will of course arrange themselves under the will of the law, and unite in common efforts for the common good.

Every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists. If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it.

I know, indeed, that some honest men fear that a republican government cannot be strong, that this Government is not strong enough.

Second Inaugural Address, 1805

At home, fellow citizens, you best know whether we have done well or ill. The suppression of unnecessary offices, of useless establishments and expenses, enabled us to discontinue our internal taxes. These covering our land with officers, and opening our doors to their intrusions, had already begun that process of domiciliary vexation which, once entered, is scarcely to be restrained from reaching successively every article of produce and property.

I know that the acquisition of Louisiana has been disapproved by some, from a candid apprehension that the enlargement of our territory would endanger its union. But who can limit the extent to which the federative principle may operate effectively? The larger our association, the less will it be shaken by local passions; and in any view, is it not better that the opposite bank of the Mississippi should be settled by our own brethren and children, than by strangers of another family?

During this course of administration, and in order to disturb it, the artillery of the press has been levelled against us, charged with whatsoever its licentiousness could devise or dare. These abuses of an institution so important to freedom and science, are deeply to be regretted.


1 "The Wild Iris" from The Wild Iris by Louise Glück. Copyright © 1992 by Louise Glück. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

2 82-word excerpt from page 29 titled: "crossover" from The Crossover by Kwame Alexander Illustrated by: Dawud Anyabwile. Text Copyright © 2014 by Kwame Alexander. Art Copyright © 2014 by Dawud Anyabwile. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

3 Reprinted by permission of SLL/Sterling Lord Literistic, Inc. Copyright by David Herbert Donald 1995.

4 Brief excerpt from p.15 from THE BINGO PALACE by LOUISE ERDRICH. Copyright (c) 1994 by Louise Erdrich. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

5 175-word excerpt from Helen Fields "Why Are Some Feathers Blue?" Reprinted with permission.

6 Introduction: An Eater's Manifesto from IN DEFENSE OF FOOD: AN EATER'S MANIFESTO by Michael Pollan, copyright © 2008 by Michael Pollan. Used by permission of Penguin Press, an imprint of Penguin Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved. From In Defense of Food by Michael Pollan published by Penguin. Copyright © Michael Pollan, 2008. Reprinted by permission of Penguin Books Limited.

7 Brown, Paul. "The Obsessive Life and Mysterious Death of the Fisherman Who Discovered The Loch Ness Monster" Narratively. Credit Line: By Paul Brown for Narratively.

8 Excerpt from THE LONELY CITY by Olivia Laing. Copyright © 2016 by Olivia Laing. Reprinted by permission of Picador. All Rights Reserved.

9 Sam Keck Scott "Dreaming of Water with Tiger Salamanders" Source: Sam Keck Scott and Longreads

10 Ancient Teotihuacan pyramids and ruins in Mexico City. Collection: E+. Credit: Starcevic. Getty Images.

11 Excerpt(s) from PECULIAR INSTITUTION by Kenneth M. Stampp, copyright © 1956, copyright renewed 1984 by Kenneth M. Stampp. Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of the Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved.

12 Jimmy Margulies/Cartoon Movement

13 Excerpt(s) from THE PIANO LESSON by August Wilson, copyright © 1988, 1990 by August Wilson. Used by permission of New American Library, an imprint of Penguin Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House LLC. All rights reserved.

14 MAD TOM IN A RAGE. Federalist cartoon depicting Jefferson as a brandy-soaked anarchist tearing down the pillars of government. Ca. 1795 to 1809. Photo credit: Everett Collection / Bridgeman Images.